I'm gonna have to say you would get better "bounce" and acrobatics out of ground squirrels and prairie dogs with a 338 so it would be my choice.Since I don't know what your intended uses are, I'd have to say the 338 Win Mag since it will handle ground squirrels to eland. The 30-06 will, also!
Thats funny. We allways get the 06 vs 7mm, or some other thread with equally matched calibers, so i thought mixing alittle would be interesting. I dont want bounderies with this one because most of us reload and many of us have moved in our lifetime so its hard to make restrictions of set bounderies of game encountered or location. For me its easy, I reload my 338 with a 225gr moveing at just over 2600fps thus topping the 06 and with only a tad bit more recoil. The biggest advantage is when it gets scarry i can load a 250 to around 2800fps( of course with more recoil) but then again its scarry.I'm gonna have to say you would get better "bounce" and acrobatics out of ground squirrels and prairie dogs with a 338 so it would be my choice.
Well, having owned both, and with the consideration I now own neither, I'd own the .30-06 in a featherweight/mtn rifle configuration if I lived in the lower 48, and had to chose.
Now thats thinking. Another caliber that would be a better choice then the 06( provided your figures are within SAAMI specs) and at not alot more recoil. However you can still load the 338 hotter if needed.The 30/06 case, without a doubt! But it needs to be necked up to .358. Heck, let's call it a .35 Whelen. I shoot a 200gr TSX @ 2874 FPS and Hornady now loads a 200gr Superformance at 2910 FPS. Pretty darn efficient is what I'll call it!
Ah, the part where I no longer owned a .30-06, or a .338. And that I swapped the .375 H&H that I bought many years ago, when Remington came out with a CDL Whelen.The 30/06 case, without a doubt! But it needs to be necked up to .358. Heck, let's call it a .35 Whelen.