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Although, I thoroughly enjoy firearms and shooting I am by no means knowledgeable on the many aspects of ballistics and design. I am the kind of guy that hears stories about the attributes of a particuliar firearm, or just likes the way it looks or feels. Then buy it and start shooting. Right out of the box. My question is; can a rifle of a particuliar caliber(out of the box)accommodate all factory ammunition of the same caliber. Without harm?  
 

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Tough question, short answer but not very helpful: usually.  But then there are exceptions, like the .45-70.  Garret, Buffalo Bullets, and others load ammo that is only for modern rifles like the Marlin 1895 series and Ruger No.1s, and would be devistating, and they say so on the box, if shot in an older or replica Springfield trap door rifle or weaker, older lever action rifle.  Since these days there seems to be a lawyer on every corner, just waiting for something to happen so they can sue, ammo manufacturers are, or try to be very careful about producing ammuntion that can be dangerous in any rifle that is chambered for it.  That is why the .257 Roberts is so woefully underloaded by the factory, as is the 7mm Mauser, and the list goes on and on.  Most if not all rifles made for modern cartridges will be safe with any factory loads you can find, like the .30-06, .300 Win, 7mm Rem mag. and so forth.  It is only when you get into cartridges that were designed during the black powder/cordite age or were designed for low pressure operation that things start to get a little blurry.   Example the .416 Rigby.  Many rifles were built around it's factory pressures of 35,000 psi, but the .416 Rigby can be loaded way past that range of pressures to equal the performance of the .416 Weatherby in actions of strong modern design, like the Ruger 77 and No.1, Dakota, Kimber...but if the factory were to load the .416 Rigby to 60,000 psi and it were to find it's way into a vintage double rifle, well, can you say LAWSUIT?  I push my .416 Rigby No.1 to loads that easily equal the .416 Weatherby, but Federal still loads the .416 Rigby down to pressure levels and velocities so their rounds will be safe in any rifle chambered for the Rigby round.  That is why it is always prudent to read any warnings on the box, and if in doubt, check it out with the firearm and/or ammunition manufacturer.  Ditto for any warning about ammunition that accompanies the rifle.
 

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Another one to watch for is the 8mm Mauser. In its original form bullet diameter was .318." These were the norm until 1905, when the diameter was increased to .323." Most of the .318" rifles were converted to the bigger dimension prior to WWI. The smaller bore rifles are usually marked as 7.92mmJ or 8mmJ, while those using the bigger slug are similarly marked, usually, with an S.

Now one must be cautious in two areas: Model 1888 Commission Rifles that have recently been imported into the U.S. (many are unconverted and/or unmarked and should only be used with light cast loads or hung on the wall) and turn of the 20th century commercial sporters that were never upgraded. While often beautiful and accurate weapons, they would be unsafe with current ammunition.
 
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