I've had the same experience do to a near-double charge caused by a mechanical problem with my powder measure years ago. Also got some brass in the face. The case head blew out and some of the brass pieces fit through the spaces between the slide and frame. The gun jammed closed and I got a slight (0.002") bulge in barrel diameter just ahead of the thicker chamber portion. Nasty surprise.
A couple of things: You said the case mouth jammed in the throat? Unless your extractor hook failed to capture the case rim and the brass was trimmed way too long and sized too narrow at the mouth, that should not happen. You can check the rim diameter and case length and diameter at the mouth. The minimum rim is 0.470" and the maximum extractor groove diameter is 0.400". The maximum case length is 0.898", and the minimum case mouth diameter crimped over the bullet is 0.467".
If the case got chambered ahead of the extractor hook, it could jam an undersized case mouth into the throat, but it's hard to see how you would accomplish that if the diameter meets minimum. If your gun's disconnector is improperly timed, the hammer could drive the firing pin forward with the slide slightly out of battery, as can occur when a round doesn't quite chamber completely, and that could leave a lot of case head unsupported and easy to blow out. Failure to feed properly is more likely if the grip on the frame isn't solid.
Finally, there is the good old double-charge. We once had a board member posting who'd been involved in government contract ammunition testing, and he said when you fire hundreds of thousands of rounds, you eventually find examples of every kind of error a handloader could make. There are even some handloaders can't make if they are reloading fired brass, as I've twice encountered cases in new brass that had no flash holes. Commercial ammunition is generally very reliable, but only God is perfect; everyone else makes mistakes.