Your rifle is not made to shoot pellets. Since it uses a #11 cap ignition system it needs loose powder. Pyrodex RS would be a great powder. Try 80 grains, a .490 ball and a .015 patch. Also don't forget the patch lube. Be sure to have a clean dry bore before you shoot. After you swab the bore clean, before you load, pop off two caps. This will blow the crud out of the bolster. What I do is push a dry patch down onto the breech. When you pop the caps you can pull that patch and look for burn marks on it. If you have burn marks, your ready to load.
In addition to the excellent recommendations given by Cayugrad, I believe you'll find it an advantage to store your precussion cap rifle(s) muzzle down if possible. While it's a bit awkward, it helps to aid in draining most of the accumulated lubrication and any other liquid out of the firing mechanism and the barrel. In addition, it puts the muzzle opening DOWN thus eliminating dust sifting into the open muzzle if the rifle(s) are stored muzzle up.
Of course, if you shoot a lot, you don't have to worry about accumulating any dust...
However, as recommended by Cayugrad, I still recommend you fire two caps in your rifle(s) prior to loading powder and a patched ball into the rifle(s) to insure everything is dry and ready to shoot.
The "Rule of Thumb" in muzzle loading is to match the caliber with the powder load... i.e., start with 50 grains of black powder if your rifle is a .50 caliber... or start with 45 grains of black powder if your rifle is a 45 caliber.
Frankly, for target loads (especially at 25 yards), I've found reduced loads shoot quite well. As an example, my .50 caliber percussion cap CVA Hawken with a 28" barrel and a 1:48 twist shoots small "3-leaf-clover" groups at 25 yards using ONLY 25 grains of FFFg Swiss black powder.
My .50 caliber flintlock Pennsylvania Long Rifle shoots similar groups at 50 yards using 47 grains of FFFg Swiss black powder.
I wouldn't consider either of these loads as "hunting loads" for deer-sized game, but rather as light "target loads" or "plinking loads" for club shoots on paper targets.
To develop your hunting load, begin with the caliber size as the amount of black powder (measured in volume, not in weight) and fire a couple of 3-shot groups. Then increase your powder load 5 grains and shoot a few more 3-shot groups. Then increase your powder load another 5 grains and do the same thing.
Eventually, you'll notice your group sizes are either increasing or decreasing in size. You've found your "hunting load" when the 3-shot groups decrease to their smallest measurement which will probably be in the 65-90 grain size powder load. After you find the amount of powder needed for your smallest groups, you'll notice that any further increase in the amount of powder used will increase the size of your 3-shot groups.
I recommend you use either Goex or Swiss which are both real black powders, but that is up to you. However, in any case, you must use LOOSE black powder or black powder substitutes, not black powder pellets or disks.
Wile you've been told to use loose powder ILO the pellets, there's reason behind it, and it's not all preference.
The pellets are tightly compressed, with a special compund applied to the ignition end (black coating).. They were designed to be fired in an inline muzzleloader, where the spark will hit the coating from the rear.o
Your T/C is not an inline, it is a side-hammer.
Most side-hammer's have the spark hole/channel/vent leading directly into the side of the barrel - where the powder charge would normally lie. On these, with pellets, they will ignite, but then again, sometimes they might not.............
The T/C breech is different, designed so that the spark hole/channel/vent leads to a small chamber that is much smaller than the bore diameter - too small for a pellet to enter, thus keeping the pellet also too far from the spark for good ignition.
When a loose BP subtitiute (Pyrodex, 777, etc) or Holy Black (FFg or FFFg) is used, be sure to use a volumetric measure/scoop for the charges, and don't actually weigh them as you would when handloading for a smokless powder metallic cartridge.
"Swiss" brand BP is made differently than other BP brands, like Goex, etc - and charges using Swiss BP should be reduced 10% lower than the Goex, etc, charge.
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