I think the different countries all have different requirements, but for the most part there are written exams and field exams required. From what I've been able to gather, Zimbabwe's PH course is generally accepted by most other countries, but it is very extensive. If I'm not mistaken it includes vehicle repair (without appropriate tools or parts), cooking, flora and fauna, wilderness first aid and EMT training, shooting tests (done on animals to be culled) etc... I don't know how long the apprenticeship is, but am sure there probably is one, though RSA may have an exception to that since most hunting is done on private ranches.
A lot of what I just printed is guess and hearsay, so please look up the requirements on the countries website. There should be a state department listing that defines requirements. Or you can contact outfitters and/or PH's for those countries and get their input. Do a search on google.com for "zimbabwe hunting" or "Namibia hunting" or where you are interested and contact a PH directly. Right now is their busy time of year, so it may take a while for them to get back to you.
Accurate Reloading's website has a few African PH's that visit from time to time and several African Hunting consultants/brokers that post there.
My apologies, there's not a lot of info in my post, but hopefully its enough to get you where the real info is.
I correspond with our missionarys from our church in zimbabwe and one thing you don't want to be in Zimbabwe is a "white" hunter or a white anything. there is some great political problems and the natives are restless.It's a very dangerouse situation that at the moment.
In South Africa one has to complete a course with a registered Professional hunting school. One has to learn about a wide variety of topics, not only hunting/shooting/skinning, but also general fauna and flora, etc.
Once qualified you need to keep your licence by conducting a certain number of hunts per annum.
Hope this helps.
If need more info then I can provide contact details for some schools.
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